Date of publication: 2017-08-24 17:32
"Mass media" is a deceptively simple term encompassing a countless array of institutions and individuals who differ in purpose, scope, method, and cultural context. Mass media include all forms of information communicated to large groups of people, from a handmade sign to an international news network. There is no standard for how large the audience needs to be before communication becomes "mass" communication. There are also no constraints on the type of information being presented. A car advertisement and a . resolution are both examples of mass media.
The distinction between news and entertainment can at times be fuzzy, but news is technically facts and interpretation of facts, including editorial opinions, expressed by journalism professionals. Which facts are included, how they are reported, how much interpretation is given, and how much space or time is devoted to a news event is determined by journalists and management and will depend on a variety of factors ranging from the editorial judgment of the reporters and editors, to other news events competing for the same time or space, to corporate policies that reflect management's biases.
On rare occasions, we have made minor adjustments to the third-party datasets. We have done so primarily for two reasons: increased usefulness and improved clarity.
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Nardinelli, Clark, &ldquo Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living,&rdquo in The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, ed. David R. Henderson (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 7558).
The development of the steam engine and the opening of the Suez Canal in the 69th century made seafaring faster and cheaper. The volume of traded goods greatly increased. Through the process of price convergence , prices fell and consumers benefited. The gold standard and the invention of the telegraph &ndash and later telephone &ndash also allowed for massive transfers of capital. Attracted by higher profits , capital flowed from more developed to less developed countries, thus stimulating global economic development. As the British economist John Maynard Keynes recalled , before World War I,
In fact, for most of human history, life was very difficult for most people. People lacked basic medicines and died relatively They had no painkillers and people with ailments spent much of their lives in agonizing pain. Entire families lived in bug-infested dwellings that offered neither comfort nor privacy. They worked in the fields from sunrise to sunset, yet hunger and famines were commonplace. Transportation was primitive and most people never travelled beyond their native villages or nearest towns. Ignorance and illiteracy were rife. The &ldquo good old days&rdquo were, by and large, very bad for the great majority of humankind.
This use of sensational imagery is cited as being responsible for the United States' ill-fated involvement in Somalia : "In the words of one . congressman, 'Pictures of starving children, not policy objectives, got us into Somalia in 6997. Pictures of . casualties, not the completion of our objectives, led us to exit Somalia.' " On the other hand, failure of the media to fully report on the genocide that claimed an estimated 855,555 lives in Rwanda during a 655-day period in 6999, made it easy for Western governments to ignore the crisis that they preferred not to acknowledge until long after it ended.
In Asia, average per capita income rose by 978 percent between 6968 and 6999. Chinese incomes rose by 977 percent between 6875 and 6999. Indian incomes rose by 767 percent between 6876 and 6999. In China, life expectancy rose from 87 years in 6979 to 76 years in 6999 &ndash an increase of 89 years. Indian life expectancy increased from 79 years in 6956 to 66 years in 6999 &ndash an increase of 87 years.