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Writing Lab Reports and Scientific Papers

Date of publication: 2017-07-09 00:40

Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. The authors here recapitulate important features of Hamilton 8767 s study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study 8767 s significance and relating it to their own work.

How to Write a Scientific Literature Review - Publishing

The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected.

The Medical Benefits of Smoking Marijuana: a Review of

Note: Students tend to view labs as practical tests of undeniable scientific truths. As a result, you may want to say that the hypothesis was 8775 proved 8776 or 8775 disproved 8776 or that it was 8775 correct 8776 or 8775 incorrect. 8776 These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist aren 8767 t supposed to have. Remember, you 8767 re testing a theory with a procedure that lasts only a few hours and relies on only a few trials, which severely compromises your ability to be sure about the 8775 truth 8776 you see. Words like 8775 supported, 8776 8775 indicated, 8776 and 8775 suggested 8776 are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis.

Scientific Reports - The Writing Center

Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.

But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. For instance, a thematic review of material on sperm whales might examine how they are portrayed as 8775 evil 8776 in cultural documents. The subsections might include how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made.

Note that the report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure.

Falk and Mills do not use any direct quotes. That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text. Some short quotes here and there are okay, though, if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Notice that Falk and Mills do quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor.

Once you 8767 ve settled on a general pattern of organization, you 8767 re ready to write each section. There are a few guidelines you should follow during the writing stage as well. Here is a sample paragraph from a literature review about sexism and language to illuminate the following discussion:

Literature reviews provide you with a handy guide to a particular topic. If you have limited time to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also provide a solid background for a research paper 8767 s investigation. Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most research papers.

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